What it does: Promotes a healthy heart, clots blood, promotes healthy nerves, contracts muscles, improves skin, bone and dental health, relieves aching muscles and bones, maintains the correct acid-alkaline balance, and reduces menstrual cramps and tremors.

Deficiency Signs: Muscle cramps or tremors, insomnia or nervousness, joint pain or arthritis, tooth decay, high blood pressure.

Best food sources: Cheese, almonds, brewer’s yeast, parsley, corn tortillas, globe artichokes, prunes, pumpkin seeds, cooked dried beans, cabbage, and winter wheat.


Calories are a measure of the amount of energy in food. Knowing how many calories are in the food we eat allows us to balance the energy we put into our bodies with the energy we use. This is the key to maintaining a healthy weight.


Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for the body as they can be broken down into glucose (sugar) more readily than either protein or fat. There are two types of carbohydrate: simple and complex.


A carcinogen is any substance that is thought to be directly involved in causing cancer.


Carotenoids are the colourful plant pigments that make fruits and vegetables orange, red and yellow in colour. They are powerful antioxidants. Examples of carotenoids include beta carotene and lycopene.


What it does: Helps balance blood sugar, normalise hunger and reduce cravings, improves lifespan, helps protect cells, essential for heart function.

Deficiency Signs: Excessive or cold sweats, dizziness or irritability after six hours without food, need for frequent meals, cold hands, need for excessive sleep or drowsiness during the day, excessive thirst, addicted to sweet foods.

Best food sources: Brewer’s yeast, wholemeal bread, rye bread, oysters, potatoes, wheatgerm, green peppers, eggs, chicken, apples, butter, parsnips, cornmeal, lamb, cheese.

Complex Carbohydrate

Complex carbohydrates release their energy slowly, maintaining balanced blood sugar levels. Brown bread, brown rice, brown pasta, beans, lentils, chickpeas, oats and wholegrains are all examples of complex carbohydrates.


Cortisol has been nicknamed ‘the stress hormone’ as it is released in higher levels during the body’s flight or fight response to stress. Levels of cortisol should naturally be highest in the morning and lowest at night.

Degenerative Disease

A degenerative disease is a condition or ailment that deteriorates and worsens over time.


DHA is short for Docosahexaenoic Acid. It is an essential omega-3 fatty acid found in fish such as salmon, mackerel and herring, and is often used in combination with EPA.

Digestive Enzymes

Digestive enzymes break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins into their smallest components, allowing them to be absorbed by the body. Examples of digestive enzymes include lipase, amylase and protease.


A diuretic is a substance that increases the amount of urine produced and therefore makes you urinate more frequently.


Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) found within the brain. It has a variety of influences on brain function including playing a role in regulating attention, movement and pleasure.